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10,000 Years BC - Resources

A selection of resources and hand-picked links for further study about the Old Stone Age.
The video clips and vocabulary cards are available via links to external websites.


CD Label

Having updated our learning support package for 2020-21 we are releasing selected contents of our earlier KS2 workshop support CD in Zipfile format (60Mb) for use as a free learning resource.

Schools can place these files on their ICT network/VLE for pupils to access the content, or parents can download it directly. You do not have to have booked one of our workshops to download this material.

Dealing predominantly with the Old Stone Age (Palaeolithic) it includes many images taken at prehistoric sites and museums around Europe, a 12,000 year timeline, links to this resources page and to other relevant materials, and graphics for use in topics or presentations. Images have been kept to a manageable size for inclusion in Word, Powerpoint, or multimedia applications. Click image at left to download the zipfile.

Please note that we retain all creative copyright on this material, and its redistribution for commercial purposes is not permitted.



La Madeleine Bison 3D


Short .mp4 video clip showing an annotated rotating digital 3D model of the La Madeleine Bison, a broken prehistoric spear thrower fragment made of reindeer antler that was re-carved into the shape of a bison apparently licking its flank.

The digital model is based on a professionally produced life-sized replica of the original Palaeolithic artefact that is currently displayed in France's National Museum of Prehistory in Les-Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil. Click image at left to link to the resource on the TES website




Prehistoric projectile points


Short .mp4 video clip showing an annotated rotating digital 3D model of three replica prehistoric projectile points from our workshop handling collection. The flint tips were knapped in the prehistoric style by modern flint knappers, and they are hafted onto wooden shafts with natural adhesives and binding. Click image at left to link to the resource on the TES website.




Prehistoric flint knife


Short .mp4 video clip showing an annotated rotating digital 3D model of a flint-bladed prehistoric knife from our workshop handling collection. The flint blade was knapped in the prehistoric style by a modern flint knapper, and the blade is hafted onto a Reindeer antler handle with natural adhesives and binding. Click image at left to link to the resource on the TES website.



Willendorf Venus 3D


Short .mp4 video clip showing an annotated rotating digital 3D model of the Willendorf 'Venus' figurine, an 11.1 cm tall prehistoric figure with distinctly feminine characteristics, that have led some to speculate that it might be related to fertility rituals. It was carved from a piece of limestone that was not native to where it was discovered by archaeologists in 1908.

The digital model is based on a professionally produced life-sized replica of the original Palaeolithic artefact that is currently displayed in Austria's Natural History Museum in Vienna. Click image at left to link to the resource on the TES website.




Our Surviving The Stone Age presentation at the 2019 Historical Association Conference is available as a video on the HA's website. Aimed at teachers and heritage educators it dispels the popular myths and stereotypes of the Old Stone Age and addresses how you can survive teaching the Stone Age by avoiding some of the more common traps and pitfalls. It raises awareness of how prehistoric people survived the Stone Age, and introduces hands on learning opportunities to engage learners in developing their understanding of the period. Click image at left to link to the video (1hr).




KS2 Stone Age Vocabulary

KS2 Stone Age Vocabulary
Sample A4 landscape page

KS2 Stone Age Vocabulary - illustrated

A collection of 55 terms relating to Archaeology and the Palaeolithic (Old Stone Age). Based closely on the content of our KS2 workshops. The Old Stone Age is the starting point against which other changes can be most successfully measured, as it was a lengthy pre-agricultural period of nomadic hunter-gatherers, spanning around 99.5% of our history.

Supported by unique and original images including real and replica artefacts, each term has a carefully-researched definition added, based on our specialist knowledge of this period and our experience of teaching about it. Pairs of terms are presented in A4 landscape format ready for printing, and laminating if required.

This resource is guaranteed FREE of tired second-hand clip art cartoons featuring stereotypical images of club waving cavemen in fur nappies, and aims to knock the somewhat unhelpful Flintstones image squarely on the head.

Can be used for display, reference, or matching exercises, by children in the classroom or for in-school staff INSET. Available for download in .pdf format.

For non-commercial educational use and display only: All material (apart from the Aurochs image) is copyright 10,000 Years BC and is not licenced for amendment or redistribution outside your organisation's ICT network without prior permission. Click images at left to link to the resource on the TES website.

In order to retain creative copyright, TES requires that we make a minimum charge of £1 for this resource.




A list of some of the people, places and websites we've found particularly helpful:

Ancient Arts: Experimental Archaeologists David and Sue Chapman and their team have provided essential training, support and inspiration for the work we're doing. Their courses in ancient technologies are excellent, and their subject knowledge is second to none. In addition to providing training and consultancy they also make and sell high quality replica prehistoric artefacts, a number of which we use in our presentations.

Will Lord's in-depth knowledge of the fine art of flint-knapping (and other key prehistoric experiences) will change any misconceptions you may hold about our Stone Age ancestors forever. To share some of his amazing insights into the prehistoric lifestyle you should give some serious thought to attending one of his courses or one-to-one tuition days. Will is a widely-acknowledged expert in his field and I can personally recommend him to you.

Bernard Ginelli: Many of our flint artefacts were crafted by veteran French flint knapper Bernard in his Palaios workshop in Les-Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil, situated in the beautiful Vézère valley, a UNESCO world heritage site and home of France's National Museum of Prehistory. Containing 147 prehistoric sites and 25 decorated caves, this area is a must-visit location for anyone with a serious interest in prehistory.

Antiqua Perigord: Pascal's replica prehistoric artefacts business (established 1999) has now passed into the capable hands of Rachel and Stéphane. We use these products in our workshops, and as part of our support resource pack for schools. They are popular in many museums and sites across France.

Rob Dinnis has been especially helpful to us, offering a selection of photos from the Ffynnon Beuno excavation for our resource pack. His Early Modern Human Europe website is well worth a visit, not least for its wonderful 3D models of Ice Age artefacts.

The Musée Archéologie Nationale at Saint Germain-en-Laye near Paris holds an unrivalled collection of Palaeolithic portable art, including the beautiful Dame de Brassempouy, one of the earliest known carved representations of a human face. Their Palaeolithic gallery simply kept us spellbound.

Ew Swart of Connecticut, USA specialises in replica Chalcolithic (Copper Age) tools and other items - we have expanded our handling collection with a couple of his excellent Ötzi the Iceman axe blades, which he sells from his Etsy shop.

Dragon Design (Wales): Many thanks to Tanya for providing the archaeological report quality hand axe illustration that we use in our school workshops, to inspire the archaeological illustrators and draughtspersons of the future!

Could You Survive The Stone Age? Inevitably there is a crossover between ancient prehistoric skills and those required to survive in a wilderness today. For anyone interested in furthering their knowledge and experience of this field I can personally recommend Patrick MacGlinchey's Backwoods Survival School, for courses based in Scotland and further afield. Likewise, to learn more about the wild food resources of our shoreline and woodlands I can also recommend Dave Phillips at Coastal Wanderer in North Wales for further training opportunities. I'm reliably informed that the UK's not to miss summer event for all bushcraft enthusiasts is The Wilderness Gathering.

Council for British Archaeology: An educational charity working throughout the UK to involve people in archaeology and to promote the appreciation and care of the historic environment for the benefit of present and future generations.

Young Archaeologists' Club: A network of UK clubs aimed at engaging aspiring young archaeologists aged 8-16.

The Prehistoric Society is the leading UK society for the promotion of study into our prehistoric past. Their learning resources have been created by Society members and are free to use in the classroom.

The Museum of London has an extensive range of Palaeolithic artefacts on permanent display, and a useful selection of education resources for Primary schools, including a short YouTube video about prehistoric tools and flint knapping, as demonstrated by Will Lord.

The Ice Age Europe network of heritage sites brings together 20 different Palaeolithic sites and research centres across 7 different European countries, offering places to visit, events, a free magazine and other essential information about our continent's shared heritage.

Proud to be an Archaeologist: BBC Bitesize clip (4:10) aimed at KS1/2 pupils, introducing the work of archaeologists and how the subject has evolved over time. We had an advisory role in the production of this clip series so are proud to recommend it to you.

John Frere was among the first English antiquarians to identify hand axes as being made by our human ancestors, and not being the product of nature. His short illustrated report written in 1797 not only challenged long-held biblical ideas about our distant past, but also comments on the stratigraphic sequence he observed at a clay digging site in Hoxne, Suffolk where his discoveries were made. His findings were considered so unusual that they were disregarded by other antiquarians for a further 50 years.

Urgeschichtliches Museum, Blaubeuren: This museum near Ulm in in Germany displays some of the oldest known examples of sculptures and portable art in the world, including three flutes made from bird bones and mammoth ivory. The 'Schwabian Eve' sculpture is the earliest known sculpture of a complete human body. Another German site that is definitely worth a detour is The Neanderthal Museum at Dusseldorf, for some original and detailed insights into the life and times of our evolutionary relatives.

Should your travels ever take you to Denmark, we can highly recommend the Sagnlandet open air museum at Lejre, which places far greater emphasis on prehistory than many open air sites, and most effectively too. Elsewhere in Denmark, the Stenaldercenter at Ertebolle, a village in Jutland that lends its name to a cultural group of Mesolithic coastal dwellers, and the Moesgaard Museum at Aarhus which has some unique coastal dweller artefacts and displays, along with Graubelle Man, preserved in a peat bog since his untimely death in the Iron Age. Also Denmark's National Museum in Copenhagen displays many of the country's most spectacular prehistoric discoveries.

Woolly Mammoth Autopsy: Details of the Channel 4 TV Documentary about the discovery and examination of 'Buttercup', the Woolly Mammoth preserved in Siberian permafrost for thousands of years on Maly Lyakhovsky Island. To see a life-sized reconstructed skeleton of the mammoth found near Condover in Shropshire, we can recommend a visit to the Shropshire Hills Discovery Centre at Craven Arms.

Creswell Crags: Britain's only known Ice Age rock art can be found at this cave site on the Derbyshire/Nottinghamshire border, where remains dating back 10-50,000 years have been discovered. The visitor's centre is open all year, with guided cave art tours running between March and September. Their website includes education resource downloads.

Cave art isn't just about animals: Paleoanthropologist and rock art researcher Genevieve von Petzinger has identified 32 abstract symbols used by Ice Age artists in caves across Europe, suggesting that people had a common method of expression and communication long before the development of alphabetic writing. She summarises her findings in a TED talk. On a related note, numerous later Neolithic to early Bronze Age symbols were engraved into open air rock surfaces around Mont Bego, on France's border with Italy. The Musée des Merveilles in Tende features extensive information about these designs from around the same time as Otzi the Iceman.

Prehistoric Art Timeline: With links to further information about each of the examples shown, this timeline traces the earliest known art back as far as 290,000 years ago.

Lascaux II: Discovered in 1940 by local youths when a sealed cave entrance on a French hillside gave way, the stunning Palaeolithic artwork found within has achieved lasting worldwide fame. The Lascaux II visitor site is a faithful underground reconstruction of the original cave, which is now in too fragile a condition to permit large scale visits.

Font-de-Gaume virtual tour: This cave at Les-Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil offers one of the few remaining opportunities to see original polychrome (coloured) cave art, and its condition is so fragile that only 80 visitors a day are permitted into the cave system. This high resolution virtual tour isn't quite the same as being there, but it's a good alternative.

Rouffignac: Our personal favourite, this is the French cave network where original monochrome cave drawings of woolly mammoth and woolly rhinoceros can be viewed, along with visible traces of cave bears, finger art, and the enigmatic tectiform symbol that appears in other caves in the region, some apparently drawn by children.

Pech Merle: A further opportunity to see original polychrome cave art (including ancient handprints) can be found outside the French village of Cabrerets, at the Pech Merle cave and museum. Advance booking is strongly recommended for their English language guided tour.

Chauvet Pont d'Arc: Some of the oldest known cave art in Europe was discovered by French speliologists in 1994, in a limestone gorge beside the famed natural arch that straddles the Ardeche river. In similar style to Lascaux II, a huge replica cave has been constructed outside Vallon Pont d'Arc. The Chauvet cave art is also the subject of Werner Herzog's acclaimed 2010 documentary Cave of Forgotten Dreams.

Grottes d'Arcy: In Bourgogne it is possible to see original Palaeolithic paintings at the far end of a wonderful 450m limestone cavern full of natural concretions and features. A most entertaining and informative tour is offered at this tranquil site some distance from the better-known cave locations further south.

Grottes de Cougnac: Among the few caves to feature clear representations of humans, along with animals, abstract shapes and (as with Rouffignac above) the tectiform symbol. Also notable for its beautiful concretions and natural formations. All of the art in these lesser-known caves is original.

More Prehistory Research Links: A selection of links to external sites, videos, and recent news stories for further research on The Stone Age and other aspects of Prehistory and Archaeology.


Palaeofacts: Did you know the oldest known European sculpture, made from Mammoth ivory, is the Lion Man, first discovered in the Stadel cave near Ulm, Germany, on the eve of WW2. It has been carbon-dated to around 40,000 years old, and at 30cms tall is also the largest known sculptural representation of this period, depicting a lion standing upright in a human-like posture. Experimental archaeologists who reconstructed the sculpture with ancient tools estimate that the original may have taken around 400 hours to complete.

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